Anti Phospholipid Ab - IgM

AsseyMethod: Elisa
Abbrevation: A.Ph.Ab - IgM
Sector: Hormone 2
SampleType: S
S.Vol: -
Transport: up to 0.5 hrs. at RT
Storage: 3 days at 2-8˚c,for longer time at -20˚c
Test Name: Anti Phospholipid Ab - IgM
Normal Range: Up to 25

This test is related to
Why get tested?

To help investigate inappropriate clot formation; to help determine the cause of recurrent miscarriage; to evaluate a prolonged PTT (partial thromboplastin time); as part of an evaluation for antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, as part of the evaluation of patients with connective tissue disease.

When to get tested?

When you have a prolonged PTT test; when you have had recurrent unexplained venous or arterial blood clots; when you have had recurrent miscarriages, especially in the second and third trimesters; if you have lupus or a related connective tissue disease.

Sample required?

A blood sample taken from a vein in your arm

Test preparation needed?


What is being tested?

Antiphospholipid antibody tests are immune proteins (antibodies) directed against phospholipids. Phospholipids are found in cell membranes including those of platelets. They are lipid molecules that play a crucial role in blood clotting. When antiphospholipid antibodies are produced, they interfere with the clotting process in a way that is not fully understood. They increase an affected patient’s risk of developing recurrent inappropriate blood clots (thrombi) in arteries and veins, which can lead to strokes and heart attacks. Antiphospholipid antibodies are also associated with thrombocytopenia (low platelets) and with the risk of recurrent miscarriages (especially in the 2nd and 3rd trimester), premature labour, and pre-eclampsia.

Antiphospholipid antibodies are frequently seen with autoimmune disorders such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). They may also be seen with HIV, some cancers, in the elderly and temporarily with infections and with some drug treatments (such as phenothiazines and procainamide).

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), also called Hughes syndrome, is a recognised group of signs and symptoms that includes the formation of thrombi (blood clots), recurrent miscarriages, thrombocytopenia, and the presence of one or more antiphospholipid antibodies. APS can be primary (with no underlying autoimmune disorder) or secondary (existing with a specific autoimmune disorder).

The most common antiphospholipid antibodies are cardiolipin antibodies (also called anticardiolipin antibodies or ACA) and the lupus anticoagulant. Others tested include anti-beta2 glycoprotein I and anti-phosphatidylserine. There are two types of tests that are used to detect antiphospholipid antibodies. The first is the test for cardiolipin or beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies. The tests used can detect several classes (IgG, IgM, and/or IgA) of the antibodies themselves. The second type are lupus anticoagulant assays, which are functional tests that measure the time it takes for a patient’s sample to clot, and they require the presence and action of phosopholipids for clotting to occur. Lupus anticoagulant assays begin with an assay to detect prolongation of clotting, the most common of which is the PTT. Confirmatory studies then need to be performed, preferably with a similar method as the initial screening assay.

Additional diagnostic and confirmatory tests may include RVVT (Russell viper venom time), PNP (platelet neutralisation procedure), KCT (kaolin clotting time) and/or hexagonal lipid neutralisation test.

How is the sample collected for testing?

A blood sample is obtained by inserting a needle into a vein in the arm.

Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample?

No test preparation is needed.