Sector: Hormone 2
Transport: at 2-8˚c, -20˚c
Storage: 1 week at 2-8˚c for longer time at -20˚c
Test Name: Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody
Normal Range: Negative
To test for certain autoimmune disorders, specifically small vessel vasculitities such as as Granulomatosis with polyangitis (GPA formerly known as Wegners Granulomatosis [WG]), microscopic polyangitis (MPA), Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS) and a few others
When your doctor thinks that you have symptoms, such as a “vasculitic” rash or chest/kidney symptoms that may be due to a vascular inflammatory disorder; In patients who are known to have antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated small vessel vasculitis, ANCA measurement is sometimes used to monitor response to therapy
A blood sample taken from a vein in your arm
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are a group of autoantibodies produced when a person's immune system mistakenly targets and attacks its own neutrophil proteins. Two of the most commonly targeted proteins are myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3). This results in the production of antibodies to MPO and/or PR3. The ANCA blood test detects the presence or absence of these autoantibodies by looking at the pattern of fluorescence on a slide under a microscope.
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies may be present in a variety of autoimmune disorders that cause inflammation and damage to blood vessels, predominantly small blood vessels, throughout the body (systemic vasculitis). Vasculitis can cause tissue and organ damage due to the narrowing and obstruction of these small blood vessels and the subsequent loss of blood supply. It can also produce areas of weakness in blood vessel walls, known as aneurysms, which have the potential to rupture.
The symptoms experienced by a person with small vessel systemic vasculitis depend upon the degree of autoimmune activity and the parts of the body involved. Early in the disease process, symptoms are often nonspecific – they include fatigue, fever, weight loss, muscle aches, and night sweats. As the disorder progresses, vascular damage may affect the functioning of the kidneys, eyes, skin, lungs, and liver. This can cause a wide range of symptoms related to these organ systems.
PR3 antibodies are most frequently seen in Granulomatosis with polyangitis (GPA). MPO antibodies are most often associated with microscopic polyangitis but may also be seen in people with pauci-immune necrotising glomerulonephritis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and GPA.For more about these conditions, visit the Vasculitis UK.